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Eisenhower british suez

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The Suez Crisis

1. 1952/7/23 - Col. Gamal Abdul Nasser and his Free Officers, including Anwar Sadat and Gen. Mohammed Neguib, overthrew King Farouk, sought to remove 3 obstacles to pan-Arab goal:

2. British colonial authority in Egypt, where Britain pledged Oct. 19, 1954, to give up the Suez Canal in 2 years and withdraw 80,000 troops

3. French colonial authority in Algeria, where Nasser aided Muslin guerillas in the war that started two weeks after the1954 Anglo-Egyptian Suez agreement

Israeli threat to sabotage the 1954 agreement but Lavon affair in Cairo failed, after Nasser had supported Palestinians and prohibited Israeli use of the Canal or the Straits of Tiran

1955/2 - Baghdad Pact f. with Britain, Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Iraq (not U.S.) due to 1953 Iran crisis with Dulles promising support for a "northern tier" defense against communism in the Mideast.

1955/9 - Nasser arms deal with Czechoslovakia was a response to the Pact and Iraq's alignment with the West (Iraq was Nasser's main Arab rival for pan-Arab leadership). Nasser also began to plan his own defense pact with Syria and Saudi Arabia

1955/9/23 - Eisenhower's 1st heart attack

1955/11/7 - Dulles offer to sell arms to Israel, but offer was withdrawn after Israeli raid killed 73 Arabs

1955/12 - Aswan Dam loan was offered to Nasser to prevent his acceptance of communist aid, package of $1 billion led by Eugene Black at the World Bank with conditions attached: Egypt not allowed to sign any other aid deal with any other country. Opposition grew from southern Congressmen who feared cotton exports and from Israel.

1956/4 - Nassar signed military allieance with Syria, Saudi Arabia, Yemen that would develop into the UAR by Feb. 1958

1956/5 - Nasser granted recognition to Communist China, withdrew recognition of Nationalist China, and sold $28 million cotton to China

1956/6 - For. Min. Dmitri Shepilov visit to Cairo, signed arms deal in exchange for cotton

1956/7/16 - Dulles cancelled the Aswan loan after Ike's decision at the Camp David NSC meeting

1956/7/19 - Nasser informed of the cancellation while in Yugoslavia for neutralist meeting with Tito and Nehru

1956/7/26 - Nasser seized the Canal, would keep the $26 million annual canal profits

1956/7/27 - Anthony Eden cabled Ike that Britain would not follow 1938-style appeasement, compared Nasser to Hitler, rejected Robert Murphy's advice to stay out of Mideast after Murphy arrived in London as special envoy of Dulles and Ike

1956/7/30 - Ike ordered the strategic stockpile of oil, knew of British-French-Israel mobilization from U-2 spy plane photographs, the movement south of Israeli army and the 60 Mystere jet fighters supplied by the French

1956/8/3 - Ike on TV to urge peace, proposed 24-nation conference to meet in London to seek internationalization of the Canal

1956/8/12 - Ike met bipartisan delegation of 22 Congressmen who oppposed U.S. military action

1956/10/29 - Israel launched attack, seized Gaza Strip and moved toward Sharm el-Sheikh to blockade the Gulf of Aqaba

1956/10/30 - Britain and France ultimatum to Nasser and Israel: withdraw troops and evacuate the Canal in 12 hours

1956/10/31 - Britain and France air attack on Egypt

1956/11/2 - Dulles arranged UN General Assembly to pass ceasefire resolution

1956/11/3 - Dulles entered hospital for stomach cancer, left diplomacy to Ike for next 2 months

1956/11/5 - Bulganin warned Britain and France to stop invasion or Russia would bomb cities; Ike place U.S. nuclear forces on worldwide alert 1956/11/6 - Ike defeated Stevenson in presidential election; Eden stopped British invasion due to sharp decline in dollar reserves, IMF refusal of loan, and Ike stoppage of oil shipments

1956/11/7 - ceasefire began, but Israel kept Gaza and Sharm el-Sheikh

1956/11/30 - Britain and France capitulated and withdrew from Suez; Ike resumed oil shipments to Europe of 500,000 bbls per day

1957/1/5 - Eisenhower Doctrine announced in Ike request to Congress for appropriation to aid Mideast, debate until March 8 with opposition led by LBJ and Minority Leader William Knowland

1957/2 - UN passed economic sanctions against Israel

1957/2/28 - Ike on TV announced U.S. support of UN sanctions against Israel

1957/3/1 - Golda Meier announced Israel with withdraw, left Sinai by march 6, Canal re-opened March 29

1957/3/9 - Ike signed joint resolution passed March 8 approving Eisenhower Doctrine; U.S. became a dominant power in the Mideast

1957/4 - Ike helped Jordan with $10 million aid and the 6th Fleet after King Hussein withdrew from alliance with Egypt and Syria

1958/7/13 - Iraq coup by army killed King Feisal II and cuased Iraq to withdraw from Baghdad Pact and join Nasser's UAR; Pres. Chamoun in Lebanon appealed to Ike for help in civil war led by pro-UAR Muslims

1958/7/14 - Ike decided at NSC meeting to send troops to Lebanon; Gen. Nate Twining gave order 15 minutes after returning to Pentagon; landings began July 15 at Beirut airport, 7000 troops in 3 days with Honest John atomic cannon; Ike also transferred Marines from Okinawa to Arabian Gulf and sent AF wing to Turkey

1958/7/31 - Lebanon parliament replaced Chamoun with Gen. Chehab; Eisenhower Doctrine proved unable to change internal politics of Mideast nations

1958/8/13 - Russia called emergency session of UN to pass peace-keeping resolution after U.S. agreed to remove troops and Arabs agreed not to interfere

1959 - U.S. signed bilateral treaties with Turkey, Pakistan, Iran

1959/8 - CENTO became official wth HQ in Ankara

revised 4/1/02 by Schoenherr | Cold War Policies

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