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Century (htm)



Complied by Zoltan Grossman (revised 1/1/95)

The following is a partial list of U.S. military interventions from 1890 to 1994. This guide does not include demonstration duty by military police, mobilizations of the National Guard, offshore shows of naval strength, reinforcements of embassy personnel, the use of non-Defense Department personnel (such as the Drug Enforcement Agency), military exercises, non-combat mobilizations (such as replacing postal strikers), the permanent stationing of armed forces, covert actions where the U.S. did not play a command and control role, the use of small hostage rescue units, most uses of proxy troops, U.S. piloting of foreign warplanes, foreign disaster assistance, military training and advisory programs not involving direct combat, civic action programs, and many other military activities. Among sources used, besides news reports, are the Congressional Record (23 June 1969), 180 Landings by the U.S. Marine Corps History Division, Ege & Makhijani in Counterspy (July-Aug. 1982), and Ellsberg in Protest & Survive.

NUMLOCATIONPeriodType of ForceComments on U.S. role
1SOUTH DAKOTA1890 (-?)Troops300 Lakota Indians massacred at Wounded Knee.
2ARGENTINA1890TroopsBuenos Aires interests protected.
3CHILE1891TroopsMarines clash with nationalist rebels.
4HAITI1891TroopsBlack workers revolt on U.S.-claimed Navassa Island defeated.
5IDAHO1892TroopsArmy suppresses silverminers' strike.
6HAWAII1893 (-?)Naval, troopsIndependent kingdom overthrown, annexed.
7CHICAGO1894TroopsBreaking of rail strike, 34 killed.
8NICARAGUA1894TroopsMonth-long occupation of Bluefields.
9CHINA1894-95Naval, troopsMarines land in Sino-Japanese War.
10KOREA1894-96TroopsMarines kept in Seoul during war.
11PANAMA1895Troops, navalMarines land in Colombian province.
12NICARAGUA1896TroopsMarines land in port of Corinto.
13CHINA1898-1900TroopsBoxer Rebellion fought by foreign armies.
14PHILIPPINES1898-1910(-?)Naval, troopsSeized from Spain, killed 600,000 Filipinos.
15CUBA1898-1902(-?)Naval, troopsSeized from Spain, still hold Navy base.
16PUERTO RICO1898(-?)Naval, troopsSeized from Spain, occupation continues.
17GUAM1898(-?)Naval, troopsSeized from Spain, still use as base.
18MINNESOTA1898(-?)TroopsArmy battles Chippewa at Leech Lake.
19NICARAGUA1898TroopsMarines land at port of San Juan del Sur.
20SAMOA1899(-?)TroopsBattle over succession to throne.
21NICARAGUA1899TroopsMarines land at port of Bluefields.
22IDAHO1899-1901TroopsArmy occupies Coeur d'Alene mining region.
23OKLAHOMA1901TroopsArmy battles Creek Indian revolt.
24PANAMA1901-03(-?)Naval, troopsBroke off from Colombia, annexed Canal Zone.
25HONDURAS1903TroopsMarines intervene in revolution.
26DOMINICAN REP.1903-04TroopsU.S. interests protected in Revolution.
27KOREA1904-05TroopsMarines land in Russo-Japanese War.
28CUBA1906-09TroopsMarines land in democratic election.
29NICARAGUA1907TroopsDollar Diplomacy protectorate set up.
30HONDURAS1907TroopsMarines land during war with Nicaragua.
31PANAMA1908TroopsMarines intervene in election contest.
32NICARAGUA1910TroopsMarines land in Bluefields and Corinto.
33HONDURAS1911TroopsU.S. interests protected in civil war.
34CHINA1911-41Naval, troopsContinuous occupation with flare-ups.
35CUBA1912TroopsU.S. interests protected in Havana.
36PANAMA1912TroopsMarines land during heated election.
37HONDURAS1912TroopsMarines protect U.S. economic interests.
38NICARAGUA1912-33Troops, bombing20-year occupation, fought guerrillas.
39MEXICO1913NavalAmericans evacuated during revolution.
40DOMINICAN REPUBLIC1914NavalFight with rebels over Santo Domingo.
41COLORADO1914TroopsBreaking of miners' strike by Army.
42MEXICO1914-18Naval, troopsSeries of interventions against nationalists.
43HAITI1914-34Troops, bombing19-year occupation after revolts.
44DOMINICAN REPUBLIC1916-24Troops8-year Marine occupation.
45CUBA1917-33TroopsMilitary occupation, economic protectorate.
46WORLD WAR I1917-18Naval, troopsShips sunk, fought Germany for 1 l/2 years
47RUSSIA1918-22Naval, troopsFive landings to fight Bolsheviks.
48PANAMA1918-20TroopsPolice duty during unrest after elections.
49HONDURAS1919TroopsMarines land during election campaign.
50GUATEMALA1920Troops2-week intervention against unionists.
51WEST VIRGINIA1920-21Troops, bombingArmy intervenes against mineworkers.
52TURKEY1922TroopsFought nationalists in Smyrna (Izmir).
53CHINA1922-27Naval, troopsDeployment during nationalist revolt.
54HONDURAS1924-25TroopsLanded twice during election strife.
55PANAMA1925TroopsMarines suppress general strike.
56CHINA1928-34TroopsMarines stationed throughout the country.
57EL SALVADOR1932NavalWarships sent during Faribundo Marti revolt.
58WASHINGTON DC1932TroopsArmy stops WWI vet bonus protest.
59WORLD WAR II1941-45Naval,troops,bombing, nuclearJapan, Italy and Germany
60DETROIT1943TroopsArmy puts down Black rebellion.
61IRAN1946Nuclear threatSoviet troops told to leave north (Iranian Azerbaijan).
62YUGOSLAVIA1946Nuclear threatResponse to shooting-down of U.S. plane.
63URUGUAY1947Nuclear threatBombers deployed as show of strength.
64GREECE1947-49Command operationU.S. directs extreme-right in civil war.
65GERMANY1948Nuclear threatAtomic-capable bombers guard Berlin Airlift.
66PHILIPPINES1948-54Command operationCIA directs war against Huk Rebellion.
67PUERTO RICO1950Command operationIndependence rebellion crushed in Ponce.
68KOREA1951-53(-?)Troops, naval, bombingU.S.& South Korea fight China & North Korea to stalemate
69IRAN1953Command operationCIA overthrows democracy, installs Shah.
70VIETNAM1954Nuclear threatBombs offered to French to use against siege.
71GUATEMALA1954Command operation, bombing, nuclear threatCIA directs exile invasion after new gov't nationalizes U.S. company lands; bombers based in Nicaragua.
72EGYPT1956Nuclear threatSoviets told to keep out of Suez crisis.
73LEBANON1958Troops, navalMarine occupation against rebels.
74IRAQ1958Nuclear threatIraq warned against invading Kuwait.
75CHINA1958Nuclear threatChina told not to move on Taiwan isles.
76PANAMA1958TroopsFlag protests erupt into confrontation.
77VIETNAM1960-75Troops, naval, bombing, nuclear threatsFought South Vietnam revolt & North Vietnam; one million killed in longest U.S. war
78LAOS1961Command operationMilitary buildup during guerrilla war.
79CUBA1961Command operationCIA-directed exile invasion fails.
80GERMANY1961Nuclear threatAlert during Berlin Wall crisis.
81CUBA1962Nuclear threat, navalBlockade during missile crisis; near-war with Soviet Union.
82PANAMA1964TroopsPanamanians shot for urging canal's return.
83INDONESIA1965Command operationMillion killed in CIA-assisted army coup.
84DOMINICAN REPUBLIC1965-66Troops, bombingMarines land during election campaign.
85GUATEMALA1966-67Command operationGreen Berets intervene against rebels.
86DETROIT1967TroopsArmy battles Blacks, 43 killed.
87UNITED STATES1968TroopsAfter King is shot; over 21,000 soldiers in cities.
88CAMBODIA1969-75Bombing, troops, navalUp to 2 million killed in decade of bombing, starvation, and political chaos.
89OMAN1970Command operationU.S. directs Iranian marine invasion.
90LAOS1971-73Command operation, bombingU.S. directs South Vietnamese invasion; carpet-bombs countryside
91SOUTH DAKOTA1973Command operationArmy directs Wounded Knee siege of Lakotas.
92MIDEAST1973Nuclear threatWorld-wide alert during Mideast War.
93CHILE1973Command operationCIA-backed coup ousts elected marxist president.
94CAMBODIA1975Troops, bombingGas captured ship, 28 die in copter crash.
95ANGOLA1976-92Command operationCIA assists South African-backed rebels.
96IRAN1980Troops, nuclear threat, aborted bombingRaid to rescue Embassy hostages; 8 troops die in copter-plane crash. Soviets warned not to get involved in revolution.
97LIBYA1981Naval jetsTwo Libyan jets shot down in maneuvers.
98EL SALVADOR1981-92Command operation, troopsAdvisors, overflights aid anti-rebel war, soldiers briefly involved in hostage clash.
99NICARAGUA1981-90Command operation, navalCIA directs exile (Contra) invasions, plants harbor mines against revolution.
100HONDURAS1982-90TroopsManeuvers help build bases near borders.
101LEBANON1982-84Naval, bombing, troopsMarines expel PLO and back Phalangists, Navy bombs and shells Muslim positions.
102GRENADA1983-84Troops, bombingInvasion four years after revolution.
103LIBYA1986Bombing, navalAir strikes to topple nationalist gov't.
104BOLIVIA1987TroopsArmy assists raids on cocaine region.
105IRAN1987-88Naval, bombingUS intervenes on side of Iraq in war.
106LIBYA1989Naval jetsTwo Libyan jets shot down.
107VIRGIN ISLANDS1989TroopsSt. Croix Black unrest after storm.
108PHILIPPINES1989JetsAir cover provided for government against coup.
109PANAMA1989-?Troops, bombingNationalist government ousted by 27,000 soldiers, leaders arrested, 2000+ killed.
110LIBERIA1990TroopsForeigners evacuated during civil war.
111SAUDI ARABIA1990-91Troops, jetsIraq countered after invading Kuwait. 540,000 troops also stationed in Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, Israel.
112KUWAIT1991Naval, bombing, troopsKuwait royal family returned to throne.
113IRAQ1990-?Bombing, troops, navalBlockade of Iraqi and Jordanian ports, air strikes; 200,000+ killed in invasion of Iraq and Kuwait
114LOS ANGELES1992TroopsArmy, Marines deployed against anti- police uprising.
115SOMALIA1992-94Troops, naval, bombingU.S.-led United Nations occupation during civil war; raids against one Mogadishu faction.
116JUGOSLAVIA1992-94NavalNato blockade of Serbia and Montenegro.
117BOSNIA1993-?Jets, bombingNo-fly zone patrolled in civil war; downed jets, bombed Serbs.
118HAITI1994-?Troops, navalBlockcade against military government; troops restore President Aristide to office three years after coup.

For more information or with comments and additions please contact: Zoltan Grossman, 1705 Rutledge, Madison, WI 53704 Phone/Fax (608)246-2256.

Permission to reproduce this list in its entirety is granted by the author, please send any published copy to the above address.

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